BP703T-Pharmacy Practice - Unit I:
a) Hospital and it’s organization
Hospitals is an institution of community health or a specialized complex organisation which employ physicians, pharmacists, nurses, other paramedical and technical staffs. Hospital provide facilities for diagnosis, therapy, rehabilitation, prevention, education and research.
Classification of hospital- Primary, Secondary and Tertiary hospitals, Classification based on clinical and non- clinical basis, Organization Structure of a Hospital, and Medical staffs involved in the hospital and their functions.
1 Based on level of cares Hospitals can be categorized as primary, secondary and tertiary hospitals,
Primary Health Care Centre: Essentials - This is your first and most generalized stop for symptoms and medical concerns. The general practitioners, nurse practitioners, or physician assistants, pharmacists, the family physician, the physiotherapist are the usual primary health care providers. Immunisation, basic curative care services, maternal and child health services, prevention of diseases are the type of services provided by primary health care centres. Family planning, health education, provision of food and nutrition and adequate supply of safe drinking water may also be included in their services.
Secondary Care: Specialists
The secondary care centres are advanced that primary care centres. When your primary care provider refers you to a specialist, you are then in secondary care. Secondary care simply means you will be taken care of by someone who has more specific expertise in what is ailing you.
Specialists focus either on a specific system of the body or a specific disease or condition. For example, nephrologist, cardiologists etc. Endocrinologists focus on hormone systems and some specialize in diseases like diabetes or thyroid disease. Oncologists have a specialty in treating cancers and focus on a specific type of cancer.
Secondary care is where most people end up when they have a medical condition to deal with that can't be handled at the primary care level. Your insurance company may require that you receive a referral from your PCP rather than going directly to a specialist.
Tertiary Care and Hospitalization
Once a patient is hospitalized and needs a higher level of specialty care within the hospital, he may be referred to tertiary care. Tertiary care requires highly specialized equipment and expertise, have advanced surgical facilities and different procedures are also available.
At this level, you will find procedures such as heart surgery like coronary artery bypass, valve replacements, joint replacement, organ transplants, and some plastic surgeries or neurosurgeries. It also includes severe burn treatments and any other very complex treatments or procedures.
2 Classification based on clinical and non-clinical
(i) Medicines – paediatrics, psychiatrist and nervous diseases, TB, general medicines.
(ii) Surgery – Orthopaedic, Gynaecology, ENT, Cardiology
(iii) Maternity – Short term, long term
(i) Government hospitals – Army hospital, Navy hospitals, City hospitals, Big hospitals like AIIMS, PGIs.
(ii) Non-government hospitals – private hospitals for profits, non-profit hospitals – church hospitals, Charitable hospitals.
Below classifications are excluded from PCI syllabus
Classification based on hospital’s size
i Large hospitals – have 1000 beds or more
ii Medium hospitals – have beds range 500-1000
iii Small hospitals – have beds between 100-500
iv Very small hospitals – have beds about 100 or less
Classification based on cost
i Elite hospitals – These type of hospitals have high end technology implemented, they have deluxe rooms equipped with TV, telephone, wi-fi, refrigerator, and their charges are very high.
ii Budget hospitals – These hospitals are meant for mild to moderate budget persons. E.g. Civil hospitals, Charitable hospitals.
Classification based on system of Medicines
i Allopathic (Conventional) hospitals
ii Ayurvedic hospitals
iii Homeopathic hospitals
iv Unani hospitals
Organization Structure of a Hospital, and Medical staffs involved in the hospital and their functions.
Hospital organization is a multidimensional, multitasking, and a dynamic process in which various managerial activities bind people together for achieving common goal.
i Nursing Services – This department is very important part of any hospitals as it functions for 24 x 7. Nurses are assigned a certain number of beds, they give personal attention to the patients. They are trained for parental care.
ii Out – Patient Service – This department is responsible for the out patients for their minor to major illness. They provide diagnosis, preventive and curative services to out patients.
iii Hospital Pharmacy Services - Department of pharmacy controls supply of medicines in any hospitals. They fill prescription and dispenses number of requisitions from the wards. They deal in procurement of medicines and distribution to out-patients and in-patients.
iv Radiological Services - These services include operation of various equipment like USG (sonography), X-Ray, E.C.G, CT-Scan, MRI etc.
v Medical records - Medical records are the valuable reference materials as it helps medical and para-medical staff for evaluation.
vi Store - The store department is responsible for receiving, storing, and issuing materials against requisition forms of various departments and wards.